The SAIMM is a professional institute with local and international links aimed at assisting members source information about technological developments in the mining, metallurgical and related sectors.
twitter1 facebook1 linkedin logo


SAIMM members can search the OneMine Research Library
after logging into the SAIMM website.
Then search the OneMine Research Library here...

Scholarship Trust Fund

SAIMM on twitter


  • Obituary - Emeritus Professor Dee Bradshaw

    Obituary - Emeritus Professor Dee Bradshaw

    Dee Bradshaw
    22 Sept 1958 to 7 June 2018

    Emeritus Professor Dee Bradshaw passed away on 7th June 2018 after a courageous battle with cancer, just a few months short of her 60th Birthday. Throughout her illness, Dee remained a leading light and inspiration to students, colleagues and professionals across the globe. A major highlight for her in 2018 was the launch of her book “Green Mining: Beyond the Myth” at the Two Ocean’s Aquarium ahead of the Annual Mining Indaba - attended by senior representatives of the Minister of the Presidency, AngloGold Ashanti and the University of Cape Town (UCT) as well as colleagues, students, friends and family. The book culminates a career of thought leadership, a passion for people and minerals in collectively addressing complex, intractable problems in society.

    Read More
  • South Africa’s ‘Samcodes way’ a world-beater – Mullins

    South Africa’s ‘Samcodes way’ a world-beater – Mullins

    SAMCODES Chairperson Matt Mullins was recently at the Junior Indaba, speaking to Creamer Media’s Mining Weekly.

    Read More
  • Open Journal System

    DOAJThe SAIMM has adopted the Open Journal System (OJS) with the objective of optimizing the management of the paper reviewing process for the Journal.

    Paper submissions will no longer be accepted via the SAIMM Journal submission form on the SAIMM website. Only papers that are currently in the system will follow the existing reviewing process.

    You can now submit manuscripts and peer reviews online. The OJS assists you with every step of the reviewing process. Authors can also check the status of their papers online and referees will receive automated reminders for their reviews.

    Read More
  • 1

From the President's Corner

  • Upskilling the heroes of the mining industry

    I recently had the pleasure and opportunity to listen to one of the most well-known and admired person in South Africa; the former Public Protector, Advocate Thuli Madonsela. She gave keynote addresses at the International Women’s Day celebration hosted by the Motsepe Foundation and at the pre-AGM dinner for the Chamber of Mines (now known as the Minerals Council South

    Read More
  • The future of Africa is not so dark

    This month’s Journal edition celebrates the impressive research achievements of some of the 2017 graduates in the mining and metallurgical sector. However, of the eight papers that were selected from the Student Colloquium in October last year, only four were submitted for the reviewing process. Two papers were subsequently accepted for publication and two are being reworked. This is a

    Read More
  • Climate change: the impact on the mining sector

    There has recently been a lot of talk about global warming and its impact on weather patterns, i.e. climate change. A keynote address at the recent Infacon conference in Cape Town focused on climate change. Some people believe that this is all a lot of hype. Others (myself included), like the keynote speaker, believe that there is some evidence pointing

    Read More
  • 1

From the Journal Comments

  • Infacon XV

    The Fifteenth International Ferro-Alloys Congress (Infacon XV) was held in Cape Town from 25 to 28 February 2018, and was attended by 450 delegates from 32 countries. After a cycle of four congresses in the northern hemisphere (New Delhi, India, 2007; Helsinki, Finland, 2010; Almaty, Kazakhstan, 2013; and Kyiv, Ukraine, 2015), it was appropriate that Infacon should return to South

    Read More
  • Where will our future metallurgists come from?

    The 14th Annual SAIMM Student Colloquium 2017 was held at Mintek on 25 October 2017. This is a prestigious annual event where mining and metallurgy students at tertiary institutions can showcase results of their projects to an audience from the greater Southern Africa mining community. The top students are invited to publish their papers in a special issue of the

    Read More
  • 1

Market News

  • KSB Pumps for University of Pretoria laboratory

    Professor Josua Meyer, Chairman of the School of Engineering and Head of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering of the University of Pretoria KSB Pumps and Valves has assisted the University of Pretoria in the construction of a large controlled-temperature test unit, which will form the backbone of ongoing research into heat transfer, fluid mechanics and thermodynamics. The impressive unit will allow

    Read More
  • Roadmap to interoperability

    How can the mining industry meet the challenges of interoperability? GMSG is building a path forward. Monday, April 9, 2018. Interoperability is a large, intricate, and complex issue that can inhibit technological advances in the international mining industry. Players hold widely different views and interpretations as to scope, content, application, and end state. Indeed, GMSG has identified interoperability as a

    Read More
  • 1


Conference Papers (simple list)





The Journal is made up of:

The Transactions which are refereed, scientific research and development papers in line with international standards for reporting major advances in mining, minerals and metals technology. Items in the Transactions will be eligible for the Institute’s gold or silver medal award and certificate of merit. The Transaction papers are recognised by the Department of Education and Training (DET) and cited by Thomson ISI (formaly the Institute for Scientific Information).

The Journal section which contains articles, reports and news items on new developments related to the industry but which are not subject to the rigid refereeing procedures of the transaction section. The items are selected by the Publications Committee from many sources including the colloquia and seminar presentations of the Institute.






The Journal is the organ of The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, which is the professional body dealing with the interests of the mangers, engineers and technical and research personnel involved in the mineral industry.

The Journal, published since 1894, is issued monthly, protem, and is sent to the individual and company members of the SAIMM. Subscribers and complimentary copies are also sent to a wide range of local and overseas companies, universities, research organizations and libraries. The circulation currently is 3200.

Rightfully claiming to be the leading mineral industry publication in South Africa, the Journal has high standards both of content and presentation. Transaction articles are peer reviewed and recognized by the Department of Education and Training (DET) and cited by Thomson ISI(Formerly the Institute for Scientific Information). It provides its readers with vital information related to the SAIMM and the mineral industry, reports on day-to-day mining operations and practice and on improvements in the technology and equipment.

Guidelines for Referees


Referees are asked to adjudicate on the suitability of a paper for publication in the Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (The Journal).

Papers that are accepted will generally contain work of a scientific research and development nature that reports advances in mining, minerals and metals technology. Papers may have been sourced from conference and seminar presentations of the Institute. Papers that are descriptive in nature should provide a new contribution to technology that is of economic importance. Papers that contain updates and reviews of current research work, processes and equipment should have a clear description of the current position and a resume of the likely future direction with respect to the technology and/or the economics.

There are three criteria, which apply with slightly differing interpretations, as follows:


Referees are asked to provide a quantitative rating between 0 - 10 for this criterion.

The paper should make a new contribution by scientific research and development to basic or applied knowledge. At the other end of the scale, papers that are trivial in content, i.e. that merely replicate known results and conclusions, or are obvious or inconsequential, should not be accepted. Papers that merely record data without deriving useful conclusions are, in general, also unacceptable. Reporting negative results or work that proved to be unsuccessful is also generally not acceptable unless these represent a surprising or unusual departure from accepted concepts. However, controversial results and conclusions if scientifically well founded are of great importance in publications and should receive a high rating.
The referees must carefully watch for attempts to use the publication merely as a means of advertising known products or services. In this instance, the paper should represent a new contribution to technology of economic importance. Long detailed descriptions of mines or plants comprising standard and well-known components or techniques are not acceptable.
In the case of a review article, it should be reasonably comprehensive and indicate worthwhile new advances, new directions for research and deficiencies in knowledge. A review article merely recording published work without any critical comments and conclusions is not acceptable.


Referees are asked to provide a quantitative rating between 0 - 10 for this criterion.

The scientific community is increasingly concerned with the number of fraudulent results and conclusions being published. However, it is impossible for most referees to check in detail the scientific validity of all papers but the following guidelines will help to assess the validity of results.

2.1 Sufficient details of the experimental methods should be given to enable those skilled in the art to repeat the experiments that are reported.

2.2 Where appropriate, the precision, accuracy and repeatability of results should be clearly indicated and discussed in terms of standard statistical methods.

2.3 There should be a clear indication of the original work of the author as compared with that of others and appropriate references should be given to the work of others.

2.4 The origin of samples and to which they are adequately representative should be indicated.

2.5 Where computerised recording and interpretation of data are used the precautions taken to calibrate, standardise and check the accuracy of these systems should be indicated.

2.6 The relevance of conclusions derived by extrapolation and interpolation of data in the form of graphs and figures should be discussed.

2.7 Records of data from plants and processes should be available for inspection and certification of summarised results.

2.8 The variability of feed and processed materials and of plants operating characteristics should be indicated.

2.9 Sampling and analytical methods and their validity should be indicated.

2.10 Important operating parameters such as on-line factors, breakdown problems and the durability of plants should be discussed and where appropriate, economic considerations should be referred to.

2.11 Critical comment should be made on the validity of the work under review.

2.12 Accuracy and precision of results should be discussed with an error analysis where appropriate.


Referees are asked to provide a qualitative rating between 0-10 for this criterion.

The Institute has publishing standards for papers that are submitted to the Journal. It is important that these standards be maintained. The Institute is prepared to undertake a reasonable amount of grammatical editorial work on papers that are received from non-English speaking countries. Spelling and grammatical/idiomatic errors should not be heavily penalised. However, it is the responsibility of the author(s) to provide a manuscript in acceptable English. The amount of editorial work that will be undertaken depends on the “value” of the paper. If the paper would be of great interest to Members then it is worthwhile for the Institute to attend to the grammar and English. Please comment as necessary. Nevertheless all categories of papers should conform to the following requirements:

  • An abstract or synopsis of no more than 250 words giving a clear and meaningful summary of the principal objectives and scope of the work; the methodology; the results and conclusions. This is of particular importance should the abstract be made available on the SAIMM web site.
  • No more than six keywords.
  • Conciseness and avoidance of long-winded and repetitive writing.
  • Appropriate phraseology and clarity of concepts.
  • Correct use of scientific terminology, units and conversions regarding equations and references.
  • Properly presented diagrams and tables with appropriate headings, designation of axes and legibility of data.
  • The Journal encourages articles with a South African flavour, and recommends that authors cite previous South African work to demonstrate their relevance. Whenever possible authors should add 2 to 3 related references that have been previously published in the Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy.


Papers that are written by Members of the Institute and are published in the Journal are eligible for recognition by the awarding of the Institute’s Gold or Silver Medal and a Certificate of Merit. 

4.1 Criteria for the award of a Gold Medal
The Gold Medal will be awarded to Members of the Institute who have submitted papers of distinction. The papers should be of world-class standard, and judged to be publications that will become key future references in either the mining or metallurgical field. They will usually display a considerable degree of originality in their subject matter, but this is not an essential criterion for the award. The presentation should be of a very high order and should do credit to the proceedings of the Institute.

4.2 Criteria for the award of a Silver Medal
The Silver Medal will be awarded to members of the Institute who have submitted papers which have made a considerable contribution to the industry but did not necessarily display a particular degree of originality or research. It is recognised that the very high standards needed to justify the award of a gold medal must not be compromised. On the other hand, it is equally important to recognize that there will be important papers presented which make a major contribution to the professions of mining and metallurgy and to the prestige of our Institute which falls short of the gold medal standard in spite of their merit. The topics that might be covered will also be broader than highly innovative papers to be considered for the award of gold medals.

4.3 Certificate of Merit
The Certificate of Merit would be awarded, in conjunction with a gold or silver medal, to co-authors of prize-winning papers who are not members of the Institute.

If you feel that the paper you are refereeing meets any of the above criteria then please include your appropriate comments.


Referees are required to make available their comments and ratings on the attached Adjudication Form. The referee’s comments only will be sent to the author(s) to assist the author(s) with the final preparation of the paper. If the paper is adjudged by the referees and the Publications Committee to be unacceptable, then the referee’s comments as to the reason for non-acceptance would be supplied to the author(s).

When a referee returns an annotated copy of the paper with the adjudication form, the referee is requested to ensure that the comments on the annotated copy are constructive. This is not the place for sarcasm or denigration.

Referees will remain unknown to the author, but they should be prepared to discuss their comments with members of the Journal Publications Committee. If the referee wishes to discuss a paper with the author, he/she may do so at his/her discretion. Please notify the Journal co-ordinator of such a decision.

Guidelines for Authors



The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (SAIMM) publishes technical and associated legal and economic information on all aspects of the mining and metallurgical industry in the following publications.

The Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (the Journal)

The Journal contains papers that:

  • Make new contributions to basic or applied knowledge through scientific research and development
  • Provide new contributions to technology that are of economic importance
  • Are selected by the Publications Committee from sources that include conference and seminar presentations of the Institute
  • Update and review current research work, processes, and equipment
  • Present original material that has not been published elsewhere
  • Are refereed in line with internationally accepted standards.

The Journal is accredited by Web of Science/ISI and satisfies the criteria for recognized research output as laid down by the Department of Higher Education and Training within the South African Ministry of Education.

The Journal has an Open Access policy which can be viewed at

The Journal does not make any charge for the submission or processing of papers that are submitted for possible publication.

Members of the Institute who are authors or co-authors of papers that are printed in the Journal will be eligible for the Institute’s gold and silver medal awards and certificates of merit.

Monograph Series

These are high-quality books that provide detailed discussions on specialized topics. They are usually compiled by authors and editors at the invitation of the Institute.

Symposium Series

These consist of the proceedings of international conferences and congresses that are presented or supported by the SAIMM. They are made available for sale after the event.

Conference Proceedings

These consist of papers from activities that are organized by the SAIMM and are published and distributed to delegates who attend the event. The Proceedings are made available for sale after the event.

Special Publications Series

These cover books, brochures, and printed items that do not form part of the Monograph or Symposium series.


General standards for publication in the Journal

To merit consideration for publication, a paper should conform to the high standards that have been established over many years. The paper should contain material on research and scientific items that is new, with interpretations that are novel or of new significance and conclusions that cast a fresh light on old ideas. The paper could incorporate developments that would be of interest to technical people and be of economic benefit to the industry. The paper should not be a repetition of well-known practices or concepts, although well-prepared and original review papers will be considered for publication.

All papers, no matter how technical the subject, should be written with the average professional reader in mind. There should be sufficient background to enable the implications of the work to be readily understood. The amount of textbook material should therefore be kept to the minimum essential to the argument. The length of a paper is not a criterion of its worth, and all submissions should be as brief and concise as possible. Although reference to the names of new products, processes, and services is not restricted, it is not the SAIMM's policy to allow editorial matter to be used for blatant advertising purposes.

The Journal encourages articles with a South African flavour, and recommends that authors cite previous South African work to demonstrate their relevance. Whenever possible, authors should add 2 to 3 related references that have been previously published in the Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy.


Permission to publish and copyright

Authors are required to sign the Permission to Publish Agreement, in which the first publication rights for the contribution to be published by the SAIMM or presented at an SAIMM meeting are strictly reserved by the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. Reproduction of material, as long as it is for non-commercial purposes, is permitted, and indeed encouraged, provided there is full acknowledgement of the source.

The author is the owner of the copyright in the contribution.

Preparation and submission of contributions

Authors should submit their papers in electronic format. Papers must be written in ‘UK English’, with spelling that conforms to the style of the Oxford English Dictionary.

An online dictionary and language reference is available from the Oxford University Press at:

Papers should be uploaded through the SAIMM Online Journal System:


Layout and style

The manuscript must be set for European A4-sized (210 × 297 mm) paper; leaving left-hand and right-hand margins of 20 mm. Pages must be numbered and should not exceed 24 pages of double spaced script.

The manuscript must be prepared in Microsoft Word and using 11 point Arial font with double spacing. Double spacing is preferred because this allows a reviewer the room to make and add comments to the manuscript.

Authors are encouraged to develop arguments that lead in a sequence from one stage to another and finally to a conclusion. Each paragraph should address a topic and contain an idea where each sentence in the paragraph logically develops that idea. Be objective. Do not include irrelevant or extraneous matter. Sentences should be punctuated correctly to make for easy reading.

Use the present tense to describe actions, conditions, and findings with ongoing applicability in the present. Use the past tense to describe actions, conditions, and results that occurred at a specific time in the past.

Quotation marks should be the 'single' type for quotations and "double" for quoted matter within quotations.

Italics can be used to emphasize a word or phrase.

All figures and tables should appear on separate pages at the end of the text. However, as a guide to the data processor and the printer, authors should indicate by means of notes in the typescript where tables and figures are to appear in the text. Figures should be clearly identified in the text and should be referred to as Figure 1 etc. (and not Fig. 1). A few well-selected figures can speak a thousand words.

Mathematical and chemical equations should be numbered consecutively in square brackets on the right-hand side of the page:

Example:                    Fe2O3 +6H(C5H7O2) →2Fe(C5H7O2)3 + 3H20                                                               [1]

Units and symbols are laid down in the SI guide from the US National Institute of Science and Technology Where acronyms (e.g. UNO) are used for the first time the full words must be given with the abbreviation in brackets thereafter. A full stop after an abbreviation is used only when the last letter of the abbreviation is not the last letter of the word. If a large number of symbols are used, they may be listed in a separate Nomenclature section at the end of the paper, immediately preceding the list of references.

The full stop is used as the decimal indicator. Numbers of four or more digits are separated into groups of three to the left and right of the decimal place, with a space between the groups.

The use of capitals for captions, headings, or references must be avoided, because that means resetting. The data processor can change lower case to upper case with the push of a button, but upper case letters need to be reset in order to get lower case letters.


The Synopsis should not exceed 250 words in length and must cover the principal objectives and scope of the work; the methodology; the results, and conclusions.

The body of the paper will typically consist of an Introduction; Background; Literature Survey; Theory; Experimental; Results; Discussion; Conclusions; Acknowledgements; References.

A literature survey is essential for every research project, because it provides the author or authors with guidelines for the project, while at the same time it makes a positive contribution to the solution of the problem and it lends credibility to a project.

The Results and Discussion could be combined if it is deemed to be appropriate.

Sections must not be numbered and should be kept to a maximum of three levels:

- First level headings are bold.

- Second level headings are bold italic.

- Third level headings are italicized.


The Journal has adopted the Harvard convention for referencing (also called author-date or parenthetical citation). The purpose of references is to:

  • Acknowledge the contribution of previous workers to the current study
  • Provide provenance of information, which lends authority to the work
  • Guide the reader to additional sources for further information on the topic.

Citations in the text

  • Single author: author's name (without initials, unless there is more than one author with the same name) and the year of publication
  • Two or three authors: all authors' names and the year of publication
  • More than three authors: first author's name followed by 'et al.' and the year of publication.
  • For more than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year, use 'a', 'b', 'c', etc. after the year of publication
  • Citations may be made directly or in parentheses. Groups of references should be listed first alphabetically, then chronologically.

Examples: 'as demonstrated (Jones, 1999, 2000a, 2000b; Jones and Kramer, 1999). Kramer et al. (2010) have shown ....'

List of references    

References should be arranged alphabetically by first author, citing all authors (not ‘… et al.’) and then further sorted in ascending order of year if necessary. For multiple authors with the same first author, arrange alphabetically by second author.

Article in a journal        

Bezuidenhout, G.A., Eksteen, J.J., and Bradshaw, S.M. 2009. Computational fluid dynamic modeling of an electric arc furnace used in the smelting of PGM containing concentrates. Minerals Engineering, vol. 22, no. 11. pp. 995–1006.

Do not abbreviate journal titles.

Paper published in a conference proceedings

Nell, J. 2004. Melting of platinum group metals concentrates in South Africa. Proceedings of the VII International Conference on Molten Slags, Fluxes and Salts, Cape Town, South Africa, 25–28 January 2004. Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Johannesburg. pp. 165–170.

Urquhart, R.C., Rennie, M.S., and Rabey, C.C. 1976. The smelting of copper-nickel concentrates in an electric furnace. Proceedings of Extractive Metallurgy of Copper: Vol. 1. Pyrometallurgy and Electrolytic Refining. Yannopoulos, J.C. and Agarwal, J.C. (eds). The Metallurgical Society of AIME, Warrendale, Pennsylvania. pp. 275–295.

The date may be repeated if it forms part of the Proceedings title or subtitle.

If Proceedings were edited, give editor(s) name(s) and initials as for a book.

If Proceedings were not published, omit publisher, place of publication, page numbers.

States in the USA may be abbreviated either the traditional way e.g. Mass. for Massachusetts or the two-letter postal code MA.


Wills B.A. and Napier-Munn, T. 2006. Wills’ Mineral Processing Technology: An Introduction to the Practical Aspects of Ore Treatment and Mineral Recovery. 7th edn. Elsevier/Butterworth-Heinemann, Amsterdam.

Chapter in an edited book

Mills, K.C. 1986. Estimation of physicochemical properties of coal slags. Mineral Matter and Ash in Coal. Vorres, K.S. (ed.). ACS Symposium Series 301. American Chemical Society. Washington DC. pp. 195–214.


Tarrant, G. 2001. Assessment of support requirements associated longwall reorientation. Report no. MET2431. Strata Control Technology. Wollongong, NSW, Australia. 30 pp.

Serbousek, M.O. and Signer, S.P. 1987. Linear load-transfer mechanics of fully grouted roof bolts. Report of Investigations 9135. US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA.

If no authors are identified, the organization issuing the report is regarded as the author.


Forsbacka, L. 2007. Experimental study and modelling of viscosity of chromium containing slags. PhD thesis, Helsinki University of Technology, Finland.


Arvidson, B. and Zhu, D. 2007. OutotecOyj. Methods of separating feed materials using a magnetic roll separator. US patent 7296687.       

State name of inventor followed by the assignee if different from author. The issuing country may be abbreviated according to the ISO 3166 standard to be found at

Newspaper report

Paul, S. 2012. Rio Tinto’s Australian trains go driverless. Star Business Report, 21 February p. 22.

If no author is given, use the publication’s name as ‘source’.

Acts of parliament and other government documents

South Africa. 2008. Mineral and Petroleum Resources Royalty Act of 2008. Government Gazette, vol. 351, no. 31636, 24 Nov. 2008, as amended. Mineral and Petroleum Resources Royalty (Administration) Act 29 of 2008, Government Gazette, vol. 521, no. 31624, 26 Nov. 2008, as amended.

Online references     

As for the various types of publication above, with the URL and date of access appended, e.g., Anglia Ruskin University. 2011. Guide to the Harvard style of referencing. [accessed 23 February 2012]
URLs should be cited in full, including the protocol (http, https, ftp, etc.). Ideally the address should be on a single line – break at a forward slash if necessary. No stop or other punctuation to follow the URL. Date of access is important; URLs have a kind of ’half-life’. If the DOI is available, it can be cited before the URL, thus: DOI: 10.1038/nature10749.

Unpublished results and personal communications

These should be avoided as far as possible. Only if it is absolutely essential to use this source, then follow the standard reference style, with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication' in place of the publication details. It is important to give the ‘author’s’ affiliation to enable readers to follow up on the information if necessary, but permission should be sought. Citation of a reference as 'In press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Webber-Youngman, R.C.W. 2011. School of Mining, University of Pretoria. Personal communication.

Figures, tables, and photographs

It is important to note that diagrams cannot be accessed electronically unless a program that is compatible with the Apple Macintosh system is used. Diagrams should be saved in EPS or JPEG file format or downloaded onto the SAIMM website. Assistance in this regard can be provided by the Journal co-ordinator, Ms Kelly Matthee. All figures (including line diagrams, maps, charts, and graphs) should be of good quality, whether in black and white or colour. All the lettering and lines should be of consistent density. Ensure that diagrams are exactly square on the paper. All figures, tables, and photographs must appear on separate pages. Authors are advised to consult a draughtsperson or another experienced colleague on the quality of the figure that is required and to use such help when preparing the figures.


Figures should be numbered in Arabic numerals, i.e. Figure 1 and Figure 2. Each figure must have a short title. All figures must be cited in the text before placement of the figure itself. The position of the figure in the text should be clearly identified. Figures must be submitted as separate files (EPS, or JPEG file format only) and labelled with the surname of the senior author and the number of the figure.

The style of the figure for a particular paper should be uniform, i.e. typeface of wording, line widths, etc. The use of a san-serif typeface like Helvetica is preferable. The figures should be as simple as possible and should contain only essential wording such as the indication of nature and units on the axes of graphs. Please keep in mind that your figure will be reduced to fit in the most appropriate of the following section column widths of 65, 103, 135, and 175 mm. Lettering should therefore be big enough on the original to still be legible on the reduced final product.

All figures in PowerPoint should be saved at 300 dpi high resolution when published at 100 per cent. Computer printouts and screen captures do not reproduce well, and should therefore be avoided. Where these are essential, the material should be of adequate contrast and density.


The numbering of tables must be with Roman numerals, e.g. Table I, Table II, etc. Tables should be set out clearly and each table should have a short title (heading). All tables must be cited in the text before placement of the table itself. The position of the table in the text should be clearly identified. Tables should be attached to the end of the main manuscript file on submission.


High-resolution colour or greyscale photographs are acceptable and should be submitted as EPS or JPEG files and labelled in the same manner as figures.

Authors are urged to have a colleague check their paper for clarity of presentation and typographical errors before the paper is submitted to the Journal.

Revision procedure

The initial manuscript will be reviewed by a minimum of two referees who have been nominated by the Publications Committee. The referees will recommend acceptance, provisional acceptance with revision, or rejection. Where appropriate, the referee’s comments and suggestions will be returned to the principal author so that the paper can be revised. After revision, the paper must be returned to the Journal co-ordinator who will ensure that all the recommended changes have been carried out to the satisfaction of the referees and the Publications Committee.

Final manuscript

One copy of the revised and final manuscript should be submitted in Microsoft Word, double line spacing and conforming to the format and style as given in this document.

Correction of proofs

The paper will be returned to the author(s) in proof form for final checking and authors are urged to ensure that the final version conforms to their requirements. It must be emphasized that proofs are supplied to correct errors made by the typesetter and not in order to provide the author the opportunity to rewrite or update the material. The revised and final paper must be returned by the date specified to the Journal co-ordinator together with the signed Permission to Publish agreement.

Failure to meet the requested deadlines or submit the necessary documentation in the specified format will lead to delay or could prevent publication.